Derbyshire claimed the final five wickets needed to beat Worcestershire by 82 runs on Day Four in Kidderminster.
Ravi Rampaul claimed 4-64, while Tony Palladino (3-34) and Fynn Hudson-Prentice (3-42) each took three wickets to dismiss the hosts for 290 to end a thrilling four-day encounter.
The win sees Derbyshire go third in Specsavers County Championship Division Two ahead of the BRM Solicitors Chesterfield Festival of Cricket, during which they face Northamptonshire.
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